Sally Kang

why join the navy.

This Week I Learnt(1)

01 Sep 2018

[ What-I-Learnt  Algorithms  Go  AI  ]


I am being quite lazy again to write my blogs these days. Though I know for most time I am just writing them for myself(few persons would read my blog, haha), it’s like to get myself a better understanding of what I’ve learnt, especially for something really interesting and cool.

Also, I found myself a kind of person who gets interested in things soon and get wrapped up in them for awhile and then the insterest can easily flag over time. This is not a good habit sometimes, obviously, and I want to lower the impact from that kind of distraction. On top of that, I am learning fragmented knowledge all the time, sometimes it’s just making me feel hard to pick up again after a long time. So I think it’d be a good idea to record what I have learnt every week(everyday is too hard for me), even with little,plain, non-topic knowledge.

Yeah, basically that’s it. Just to make me feel better when I’m struggling learning, for everything.

What I have learnt


Keep working on Sorting algorithms this week, and good news for me, I have finished the sorting chapter from the book Algorithms

Selection Sorting

 public static void sort(Comparable[] a){
        int N = a.length;
        for (int i=0;i<N;i++){
            int min = i;
            for (int j=i+1;j<N;j++){
                if (less(a[j],a[min])) min = j;

Basically ,for a N-length array, select sorting would need to compare for N^2/2 and exchange for N times

Insertion Sorting

public static void sort(Comparable[] a){
        int N = a.length;
        for (int i=1;i<N;i++){
            for (int j=i;j>0 && less(a[j],a[j-1]) ;j--){

For a random, N-length array without repeated keys, insertion sorting would need to compare for around N^2/4 times and exchange for N^2/4 in average.

Shell Sorting

public static void sort(Comparable[] a) {
        int n = a.length;
        // 3x+1 increment sequence:  1, 4, 13, 40, 121, 364, 1093, ...
        int h = 1;
        while (h < n/3) h = 3*h + 1;
        while (h >= 1) {
            // h-sort the array
            for (int i = h; i < n; i++) {
                for (int j = i; j >= h && less(a[j], a[j-h]); j -= h) {
                    exch(a, j, j-h);
//            assert isHsorted(a, h);
            h /= 3;

It’s said that calculating the performance of shell sorting can be hard in terms of some mathematical proof.

Merge Sorting

First we need to define the merge function

public static void merge(Comparable[] a,int lo,int mid,int hi){
        int i=lo,j=mid+1;
        for (int k = lo; k<=hi; k++)
            aux[k] = a[k];
        for (int k=lo;k<=hi;k++){
            if (i>mid) a[k] = aux[j++];
            else if(j>hi) a[k] = aux[i++];
            else if(less(aux[j],aux[i])) a[k] = aux[j++];
            else a[k] = aux[i++];

Sort from bottom to up:

public static void sort(Comparable[] a){
        int N = a.length;
        aux = new Comparable[N];
        for (int sz =1;sz<N;sz+=sz+sz)
            for (int lo=0;lo<N-sz;lo+=sz+sz)

Sort from up to bottom:

public static void sort(Comparable[] a, Comparable[] aux,int lo,int hi ){
        if (hi <= lo) return;
        int mid = lo+(hi-lo)/2;

Quick Sorting

First need a partition function:

public static int partition(Comparable[] a, int lo,int hi){
        int i=lo,j=hi+1;
        Comparable v=a[lo];
        while (true){
            while (less(a[++i],v)) if (i==hi) break;
            while (less(v,a[--j])) if (j==lo) break;
            if (i>=j) break;
        return j;

Then sort:

public static void sort(Comparable[] a,int lo,int hi){
        if (lo >= hi) return;
        int j = partition(a,lo,hi);

Priority Queue

The designed api:

public class MaxPQ {
    private Key[] pq;
    private int N = 0;
    public MaxPQ(int N){
        pq = (Key[])new Comparable[N+1];
    public boolean isEmpty(){
        return N==0;
    public int Size(){
        return N;
    public void insert(Key v){
        pq[++N] = v;
    public Key delMax(){
        Key max = pq[1];
        pq[N+1] = null;
        return max;
    public static boolean less(Comparable v, Comparable w){
        return v.compareTo(w) < 0;
    private void exch(int i, int j){
        Key t =pq[i];
        pq[i] = pq[j];
        pq[j] = t;
    public void swim(int k){
        while (k>1&&less(k/2,k)){
            k = k/2;
    public void sink(int k){
        while (2*k <= N){
            int j=2*k;
            if (j<N && less(j,j+1)) j++;
            if (!less(k,j)) break;
            k = j;


To deal with multiway input:

public static void merge(In[] streams){
        int N = streams.length;
        IndexMinPQ<String> pq = new IndexMinPQ<String>(N);
        for(int i=0; i<N;i++)
        while (!pq.isEmpty()){
            int i = pq.delMin();

Heap Sorting

public static void sort(Comparable[] a){
        int N = a.length;
        for(int k = N/2;k>=1;k--)
        while (N>1)


Some resources I used to understand and solve some specific problems

Package http

How to create a web server in Go

Making a RESTful JSON API in Go

How to write files in Go

How to use pprof in Go

How to custom pprof profiles

Machine Learning

Some resources I used to understand and solve some specific problems

What is Shatter Set?

What is VC dimension?

How to calculate average-precision?

What is SVM?

SVM tutorial

How you draw a ROC curve?


What is np.where doing?

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